Rehabilitation in the Thermal Environment in the Osteo-Articular Pathology.
WHAT IT IS
The valorization of thermal resources with rehabilitative objectives is still a rare event, but it is very interesting for Rehabilitative Medicine and for a possible future development of the Spa in Italy. A Centre of Thermal Rehabilitation should be designed and developed to allow the treatment and accommodation of disabled subjects and, at the same time, it should have been possible to offer thermal and rehabilitative treatments (kinesitherapy, respiratory re-education, lymphodrainage, laser therapy, electrotherapy, etc.). Kinesitherapy and all its main techniques (passive or active mobilization, functional re-education, hydro-kinesitherapy, respiratory re-education) have a leading role among all the previous therapies; kinesitherapy should not be defined in the traditional sense as a limitative definition of “therapy by movement,” but as a technique that aims at “preserving or recovering movement”.
Among the main pathological conditions of osteo-articular origins, which can be treated in a Thermal Rehabilitation Centre, we should mention degenerative pathologies (osteo-arthrosis), rheumatic pathologies (ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.), post traumatic pathologies (fractures, distortions, etc.) and post-surgical pathologies (prosthesis, etc.), osteoporosis, muscular hypotrophy, articular rigidity, postural and functional alterations. Each pathology needs a specific therapeutic program; the choice of treatments and how they are applied will depend on the pathology and the targets to achieve. The possibility to take advantage of the relaxing, pain-killing and anti-inflammatory effects of thermal treatments can favor the kinisitherapy exercises with the desired final result and favor a faster and more complete recovery of function and movement of many muscular-skeleton pathologies as well as prevent these pathologies from worsening.
Finally we should not neglect the psychological effects due to a stay in a peaceful and relaxing environment, which is available at the Thermal Centers.
THERMAL REHABILITATIVE MEDICINE
On the basis of the experience in treating the osteo-articular pathology in the thermal environment, we can state that a physic-rehabilitative intervention is an essential complement of traditional thermal treatments applied to several osteo-articular pathologies; this integration between Thermal Medicine and Rehabilitative Medicine is now defined as Thermal Rehabilitative Medicine. The search for a synergy between crenotherapy and rehabilitation is the logic for the performance of the rehabilitation treatments in the Thermal Centers. The more and more diffusion of Thermal Rehabilitation Centers could also represent an opportunity for the National Sanitary Service; in fact, the thermal premises equipped with suitable rehabilitation standard could be included within the sanitary structures of the territory and that would contribute to decongest the rehabilitation wards in hospitals.